This is a list of the harshest in the world who does not have the keprikemanusiaan and prikeadilan, that they are planning something for the sake of his own personality and not knowing the fate of our laen.Dan as a photographer in the world seluru mengpoling list harshest criminals who massacred all of humanity through publizer magazine world, a list harshest criminals were as follows:
1. Josef Stalin
Josif (Joseph) Stalin Vissarionovich, Iósif Vissariónovich Stalin), real name Ioseb Jughashvili, (December 21, 1879 (Gregorian calendar chronicle) - March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union and a very cruel dictator, also known as the Man of Steel. He is thought to have ordered the killing of some 30 million inhabitants of Russia and surrounding countries. He is also known as people who hate religion. He had entered the seminary in Tbilisi, but he later became no longer believed in God after reading the book Origin of Species by Charles Darwin.
He appeared as the leader of the communist party in the Soviet Union Republic of the main Sosialis.Saingan Stalin was Leon Trotsky, Leon successfully driven out of Russia and then killed. By 1929, Stalin became head of state. He treats his rival or anyone who opposes their cruel degan all put to death as mesuh Soviet state or kampkamp put him in prison. In World War II (1939-1945) Russian war with Britain and the United States against Germany. But after the war Stalin "put the Iron Curtain" between the Western allies and Russia and most countries in Eastern Europe used as a Communist state. Stalin was in power until his death at the age of 73 years. In his reign he did not just oversee the entire Russian state, but also countries outside Russia.
2. Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong (Shaoshan, Hunan, December 26, 1893 - Beijing, September 9, 1976), is the name of a prominent philosopher and founder of the People's Republic of China.
Mao and the party
The party was founded in 1921 Mao and Mao's increasingly vocal. Between the years 1934 - 1935 he held the lead role and led the Chinese Red Army undergoing "Length Mars." Then since 1937 he participated to help Dai Nippon combat troops that occupied much of China's territory. Finally, World War II ended and civil war flared again. In the war against the nationalists of this, Mao became the leader of the Reds and he finally won in 1949. On October 1, 1949, People's Republic of China was proclaimed and the Chinese nationalist leader, Chiang Kai Shek fled to Taiwan.
Mao and political policy
Mao distinguish two types of conflict, conflict antagonists and non-antagonistic conflicts. Antagonistic conflict can only be solved according to a just battle, while non-antagonistic conflict can be resolved by a discussion. According to Mao conflict between the workers and workers with the capitalists is an antagonistic conflict while the conflict between the Chinese people with the Party is a non-antagonistic conflict.
In 1956 Mao introduced a new policy in which the intellectuals can issue their opinion as a compromise against the party who pressed it because they want to avoid the cruel oppression is accompanied by the motto: "Let a hundred flowers and a hundred different thoughts compete." But ironically policy This political failure: the intellectuals were not satisfied and release much criticism. Mao himself argued that he had been betrayed by them and his revenge. About 700,000 members of the intelligentsia ditangkapinya and forcibly made to work in rural areas.
Mao believed in the eternal nature of a revolution. He also believes that any revolution would result in the counter-revolutionary. Therefore, he regularly and eradicate what he considered arresting political opponents and the traitors or the counter-revolutionary. Event of the most dramatic and tragic events is the heart of the Cultural Revolution that occurred in 1966. In the 1960s the students in the whole world is on the happy-happy rebel against what they consider the Establishment or the ruling. Similarly, in China. The difference in China they are supported by their teachers and dignitaries of the Party including Mao himself. The students and faculty to establish what is called the Red Guard, a paramilitary unit. Armed with Mao's Red Book, they attacked the lackeys of capitalism and Western influences and the other counter-revolutionary. As an example of their fanaticism, they are among others refused to stop on the highway when the red light because they suggest that the color red, a symbol of socialism might mean something not quit. So the members of the Red Guards in 1966 is very indiscriminate in combating the counter-revolutionary China in a state so that the country is very precarious and almost destroyed; ekonominyapun no road. Finally, Mao was forced to reduce the PLA to overcome them and block their fanaticism. The result is a new civil war which ended in 1968.
G-30-S PKI and Mao Involvement
Chinese Cultural Revolution period also coincided with periods of rebellion G-30-S PKI in Indonesia where some quarters in Indonesia has accused the people of the People's Republic of China as the mastermind. Mao denied it and the relationship between Indonesia and China that were previously very cold warm up resumed diplomatic relations in 1990, long after Mao's death.
In 1958 Mao launched what he called the Great Leap Forward in which rural areas are totally reorganized. Everywhere established associations villages (communes). Economically this was all failed. These communes into units that are too large and can not terurusi. It is estimated that approximately nearly 20 million people have died in China at that time in vain.
3. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 - April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) (Third Reich), Germany since 1934 until he died. On August 2, 1934, he became dictator of Germany after President von Hindenburg died. He united position became chancellor and president making Nazi Führer at once as a single party in Germany. He is also a Chairman of the Nationalist-Socialist Party (National Socialist Germany Workers Party or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei / NSDAP), known by the Nazis. Nazis officially disbanded after the German defeat in World War II are great because Hitler's dictatorship system. Hitler was a charismatic orator, Hitler is one of the most influential leaders in dunia.Ketika World War II would end, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin with his wife whom he married not long ago in the bunker, Eva Braun.
Hitler then engaged directly in politics and take charge of the German Workers' Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei / DAP) in July 1921. Hitler used permissibility berpidatonya to become party chairman. He then exchanged the name of DAP into Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) or Nazi party in 1929 Nazi.Pada win a majority in elections in the town of Coburg, and then won the regional elections Thüringen. President of the German period, Paul von Hindenburg finally appoint Hitler as Chancellor.
Hitler and Darwin's Theory
Darwin's theory has entered the minds of Hitler, even penetrate to the bone marrow. It is very felt in his book Mein Kampf (My battle). He likened the non-European races as an ape.
From inside her growing 'power' that gets inspiration from Darwin's theory that in order to sustain human life must be fought. He translated his dreams by attacking Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Russia, etc.. In fact dawned appetite control the whole world. He launched the concept that became the foundation eugenetika evolutionist view of the Nazis. Eugenetika means 'improvement' of the human race by removing diseased people and healthy individuals with disabilities and multiply. So according to that theory, the human race can be improved by mimicking the way a good quality of animals produced through the breeding of healthy animals. Meanwhile, disabled and diseased animals destroyed.
Shortly after the ruling, applying the theory that Hitler with an iron fist. People are mentally weak, disabled, and diseased offspring collected in 'sterilization center' special. Since it is considered parasites that threaten the purity of the German people and hamper the progress of evolution, then the top secret orders, in a short time they were all slashed.
Still in the euphoria of the theory of evolution and eugenetika, Nazi youth leader called blue-eyed blond who is believed to represent pure German race let me have sex without marriage. In 1935, Hitler ordered the establishment of specific fields of human reproduction. In it lived the young woman who has the Aryan race. The officers SS (Schutzstaffel) often stopped there for the nasty with a pretext eugenetika. The babies born then prepared to be future soldiers 'German Empire'. According to Charles Darwin, because it enlarges the size of a human skull while climbing the ladder of evolution, then the measurements were taken throughout Germany for the Germans to prove the skull is larger than other races. They are not as big as the official measure, as well as the teeth, eyes, and hair outside the criteria evolutionists immediately exterminated.
World War II and the Fall
In September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland with attack tactics of blitzkrieg (ground attack, air express) achieved a surprising triumph of the enemy and his own generals. The attack on Poland led to its enemies Britain and France declared war on Germany, that began with World War II.
During World War II, the British led by Sir Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain who collapsed in a scandal that the Nazi invasion of Poland 1939, France led by General Gamelin who was appointed as supreme allied commander failed to withstand lightning attack into Belgium and Germany France, the French eventually led by General Charles de Gaulle, who led the French resistance forces during the Vichy Government, as well as aid the United States that led Gen. Eisenhower as commander of the theater in Europe before the United States although reluctantly involved in wars that were previously regarded as a European war.
After a long battle and after a defeat in every battle, Hitler realized that defeat is inevitable. Initial defeat of Hitler is now pounding the city of Kursk Soviet Union with Operation Citadel, the German forces consisted of the 800,000 infantry, 2700 armored tanks, 2,000 combat aircraft and led by General Erich Von Manstein and General Walther Models while the strength of the Soviet Union consisted of 1.3 million infantry , 3600 tanks, and 2,400 combat aircraft. Plan of attack has been understood in detail by the intelligence of the Soviet Union in Switzerland. Stalin had directly ordered the army to build a strong defense in the Kursk region. In this battle a lot of tanks - tanks mainstay of Germany and the Soviet Union collapsed, including Tiger Tank, Panther, Elefant (Germany) and Tank T-34, -152 SU, and KV -1. Germany suffered a blow deadly blow at Stalingrad and the Allied attack on Normandy and failed in the Ardennes Offensive, the counterattack by the German army, or Wehrmacht, and some remaining panzer division led by General Mantauffel during snow season to reclaim the city of Antwerp in Belgium. This attack took place in a stumbling - seok and end up failing because of lack of supplies and fuel for the German Panzer panzer so many who are still "Fresh from the Oven" like Tiger and Panther tanks sitting on the roadside due to run out solar.Hitler who realizes his downfall was close and then married his mistress Eva Braun and then committed suicide together on April 30, 1945. His body was burned so as not to fall into enemy hands.
4. Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Illich Lenin, the original name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (April 10 (22 April according to chronicle the Gregorian Calendar) 1870 - 21 January 1924), was a Russian Communist revolutionary, leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Prime Minister of the Soviet Union and Lenin's creators understand Leninisme.Nama is actually a pseudonym and is taken from the name of the river Lena, in Siberia.
Development into a Revolutionary
Meanwhile, while working as a lawyer in Saint Petersburg, he became familiar with the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Because the work on Marxism banned in Russia, Leninpun arrested and jailed for a year. Then he was exiled to Siberia. While in prison even Lenin showed his talent by beating other prisoners in playing chess. In July 1898, still in Siberia, Lenin married a woman named Nadezhda Krupskaya socialist. In 1899, he wrote the book The Development of Capitalism in Russia. In 1900, he was allowed home from Siberia. Then he traveled Europe and visiting conferences Marxist.
In 1903 Lenin was arguing with the managers of the Social-Democratic Party and the Labour Russia on the structure of the party. Martov an administrator wants a rather loose structure and autonomous, while Lenin wanted a centralized structure. Then the party broke into two. The people called the Bolsheviks of Lenin, which means the majority and the people Julius Martov called the Mensheviks, which means minority.
In February 1917, connect with the defeat of Russia in World War I, the Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate the throne. Then formed a cabinet led by Alexander Kerensky. Then Lenin on 16 April 1917 back to Petrograd, the name of the city of Saint Petersburg has di'Rusia' about.
Then Lenin in July attempted to organize workers' uprising. But this rebellion failed, and Lenin escaped to Finland. In October he returned again and tried to hold the October Revolution. At this time he succeeded, on 7 November 1917 according to the Gregorian calendar chronicle or chronicle October 25, according to the Julian calendar, the revolution succeeded and Kerensky was forced to flee diri.Pada August 30, 1918, Lenin was shot by Fanya Kaplan, a revolutionary woman as well, three times. Kaplan considers Lenin had betrayed the Russian Revolution. Lenin survived but his health began to decline and finally he died on January 21, 1924 after a stroke four times.
5. Idi Amin
General Idi Amin Dada Oumee (Koboko, Uganda, circa 1925-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, August 16, 2003), also known by the name of Idi Amin, is a leader in the Ugandan military dictator who ruled on 25 January 1971-13 April 1979.
As soon as Idi Amin's rule, Uganda became the state's international fame. In August 1972, all British citizens Asia (60,000 people) were given ninety days to lift the foot from Uganda. This action is not because of racism, but because he wanted to give "real independence for the people of Uganda". A frenzy of course England, which its officials hastily contact Australia, New Zealand, and British Commonwealth countries other to discuss shelters, especially Kenya and Tanzania refused to give shelter to the refugees. Ten days later promulgated additional rules that foreigners who have become citizens of Uganda should go from Uganda. The amount is about 23,000 inhabitants. Surely the citizens of foreign descent who was born in Uganda confusion. If they go, their status is stateless (stateless). Plus, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (country of origin) refused to accept their return. Coupled with the policy nasionalisasai-owned companies of the Europeans in Uganda. Idi Amin was true right "confusing many people."
As a result of this decision, arising from severe economic crisis in Uganda. About 90% of trade and industry controlled by the Asians. Uganda People themselves are still very traditional agrarian and less skill, capital and skills. Actually, the plan for the expulsion of Asians was planned by Milton Obote because it felt too gripping the economy of Uganda, but is still targeting the next five years, with a reason to prepare people of Uganda.
Uganda government in such chaos that the United Nations International Law Commission to report to the then UN secretary general, Kurt Waldheim on June 7, 1974, which read: "Uganda is a land without law." One of the peak of the crisis is to ask Finance Minister Emmanuel Wakheya asylum to the UK because not stand anymore of economic decisions taken by the military regime of Idi Amin's reign.
In early 1977, William Johnshon write a report to the Bangkok Post newspaper that read: "After four years in power, Idi Amin's Uganda has changed the lives of the poor. Formerly Uganda country exporters of tea and coffee, but because of administrative systems and poor transportation, hundreds of sacks of coffee sitting in storage awaiting export, tens of thousands of tons of temporary smuggled into Kenya. Uganda as one country once tersubur in Africa, is now so scarce agricultural produce to city dwellers to plant sugar cane and bananas. soap, sugar, and wheat are treated like gold was so scarce. While in rural areas so abundant harvests, townspeople can not enjoy the results. Five years ago, operates 298 buses that run the government, now only 11 that still works. "In April 1979, Idi Amin had overthrown by nationalist soldiers who assisted Tanzania Uganda. Previous Idi Amin with the help of Libya trying to attack the Kagera, the northern province of Tanzania.
Idi Amin fled to Libya eventually fly which then requested asylum in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and settled there. According to him, the death rate of 100,000 to 300,000 people and killed dianiya is due to improper intelligence section. Even the National Research Bureau threatened to kill him. According to Amin, a lot of bad things that are hidden when he came to power. When he found out the existence of the firm, it was too late.
However, during the Amin has not fallen, David Martin in his article in the South China Morning Post revealed how Idi Amin know football lunge oknumnya rogue. He said he did not want to be president, tentaranyalah who requests it, but about the expulsion of Asians, he said, "They are too powerful and mocked our people."
Idi Amin had four wives. His first wife was Sarah or Mama Malian whom he married in 1958, which both Kay, the third Norah, and the fourth Medina, whom he married in 1971. In early 1974 he divorced his first wife so that the three lived Medina. On August 1, 1975, he married Sarah, a racer death squads of the Army of Uganda. Four months later, he married the daughter of a businessman Babirye Uganda. It was Idi Amin anak.Pada already have 34 people on July 20, 2003, before his death at the King Faisal Hospital in Jeddah, his wife pleaded with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni for Idi Amin was buried in his country, but this request was rejected. Idi Amin died in Saudi Arabia on August 16, 2003 and was buried in Jeddah.
On 17 August 2003, David Owen said in an interview by BBC Radio that while serving as secretary to the British Foreign Ministry (1977-1979), Idi Amin ordered that he be killed to end the regime terorya. His proposal was rejected, but the reason Owen was Idi Amin's regime is very bad, very horrible when he left in power too long.
6. Benito Mussolini
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 - April 28, 1945) was an Italian who embraced the Fascist dictator. He was the dictator of Italy in the period 1922-1943. He was forced to resign from his position as Prime Minister of Italy on July 28, 1943 after a series defeat of Italy in Africa. After his arrest, he was isolated. Two years later, he was executed in Como, northern Italy. Mussolini end to a decade as the German dictator Adolf Hitler committed by his Nazi.
Mussolini was born in Predappio, Forlì (Emilia-Romagna). His father was a blacksmith Alessandro Rosa and her mother a schoolteacher. Like his father, he became a heavy socialist. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Because it is difficult to find a permanent job, he eventually moved to Italy. In 1908 he joined the newspaper in the Austrian town of Trento.
Get out of there, he became editor of a socialist newspaper in la Lotta Class (Class Conflict). Here his enthusiasm at the Karl Heinrich Marx bigger. In 1910, he was the secretary of the socialist party in Forlì regional level and develop into antipatriot personality. When Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire in 1911, he was jailed for peace propaganda. This is in contrast to its performance later.
Once appointed to be editor of the socialist newspaper Avanti, he moved to Milan, where he was establishing itself as an influential force on the Italian socialist labor leader. He believed, the proletariat can dibuhul in fascio movement. Presumably this is the embryo of a fascist movement, who was born in Italy when the economy soured by the war, and unemployment is rampant everywhere mana.Pada March 1919, fascism became a political movement when he formed the Group for the Fight, known as black clothes, which is a collection of criminals, criminals, and thugs who act as bouncers bosses. Their performance was spooky and every day getting into fights in the streets.
After failing in Election 1919, he developed an understanding of the group, so start getting the effect. They, the fascists, rejected the parliament and promoting physical violence. Anarchy broke out everywhere. Liberal government powerless to deal. He brought a "gang" her, a large number of the fascists are looking grim, to perform Roma.Melihat Line up to the haunted-looking group of thugs entered Rome, King Vittorio Emanuele III shrink afraid. Mussolini was invited to the palace and given the position of the Leader. In October 1922, the King asked him to form a new government. Be Italy's fascist government managed.
His first breakthrough after taking office, was attacked Ethiopia with reference to the racist views of Charles Robert Darwin, "Ethiopia's low class people, because it included blacks. If ordered by a superior race like the Italians, it was a natural result of evolution." In fact he insisted that nations evolve through battle. So be Italian then the dreaded soccer terjangnya nation.
What is troubling, when he occupied the Abbesinia in 1937, the world gasped in cash. Best friends in Europe was Adolf Hitler, and they make alliances, who dragged Italy into World War II on the side of Germany in 1940. However, his army was defeated in Greece and Africa, and Italy itself was invaded by forces of the United Kingdom and the United States in 1943. At that time Mussolini had descended from his throne and detained. German paratroopers freed and returned to power in Northern Italy. End of history arrived shortly afterwards. When Italy finally defeated, he was shot by enemy Italian and his body hung upside down in the Piazza Loreto in Milan.
7. Pol Pot
Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 - 15 April 1998), better known as Pol Pot, was leader of the Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia from 1976 to 1979. The Government was much blamed for the deaths of around two million Cambodians, although the estimated amount of variety.
In early 1976 the Khmer Rouge, Sihanouk held under house arrest. The current government was soon replaced and Prince Sihanouk was removed from his post as head of state. Cambodia into a communist republic under the name "Democratic Cambodia" (Democratic Kampuchea) and Khieu Samphan became president pertama.Pada May 13, 1976 Pol Pot was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cambodia and began to implement changes to the country's socialist. Bombardment by the U.S. side has resulted in abandoned rural areas and congested cities filled with people (Phnom Penh's population increased by about 1 million persons as compared with before 1976).
When the Khmer Rouge gain power, they are evacuating people from urban to rural areas where they are forced to live in fields shared. Pol Pot's regime is very critical of the opposition political dissent and thousands of politicians and officials were killed, and Phnom Penh, too, turned into a ghost town whose inhabitants many die from starvation, disease or execution. Landmines (by Pol Pot they referred to as the "perfect soldier") distributed widely throughout the rural areas.
In late 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia. Cambodian troops were defeated with ease, and Pol Pot fled to the Thai border. In January 1979, Vietnam established a puppet government under Heng Samrin, consisting of members of the Khmer Rouge who had fled to Vietnam to avoid penmbasmian that occurred earlier in 1954. Many members of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia to the east, who moved to Vietnam for fear of being accused of parties collaborating. Pol Pot was able to maintain a sufficient number of followers to keep fighting in small areas in the west of Cambodia. At that time, China, which previously supported Pol Pot, attacked, and led to the Sino-Vietnam War who did not take place lama.Pol Pot, an enemy of the Soviet Union, also gained support from Thailand and the U.S.. U.S. and China vetoed the allocation of Cambodian representation in the UN General Assembly that comes from government Heng Samrin. United States directly and indirectly supported Pol Pot by channeling aid funds collected for the Khmer Rouge.
The number of casualties from the civil war, Pol Pot's consolidation of power and the invasion of Vietnam is still disputed. These sources can be trusted from the West  calling number 1.6 million people, while a specific source, such as the amount of three million lives between 1975 and 1979, awarded by the regime-backed Phnom Penh Vietnam, the PRK. Father Ponchaud provide an estimate of 2.3 million-although this number includes hundreds of thousands of victims prior to the takeover by the Communist Party. Amnesty International called 1.4 million; sedngkan U.S. State Department, 1.2 million. Khieu Samphan and Pol Pot himself, each calling 1 million and 800,000.
Post-Communist Party government
Pol Pot retreated from his post in 1985, but survived as the de facto leader of the Communist Party and the dominant force in dalamnya.Pada 1989, Vietnam withdrew from Cambodia. Pol Pot refused the peace process, and keep fighting against the new coalition government. Khmer Rouge kept the government forces until 1996, when many troops who have lost the moral began to leave. Several important Khmer Rouge officials are also moving party.
Pol Pot ordered the execution of his Son Sen and eleven members of his family on June 10, 1997 due to make a settlement with the government (the news did not reach outside Cambodia for three days). Pol Pot then fled but was later arrested by Khmer Rouge military chief, Ta Mok and be under house arrest for life. In April 1998, Ta Mok fled into the woods while carrying Pol Pot after a new government offensive. A few days later, on April 15, 1998, Pol Pot died - reportedly of a heart attack. His body was then burned in rural areas, witnessed by some members ex-Khmer Rouge.
8. Augusto Pinochet
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (Valparaíso, 25 November 1915-Providencia, December 10, 2006) was a general and dictator of Chile. He is the head of the ruling military junta in Chile in the period 1973 to 1990. He came to power by way of a coup shortly after the democratic elections that chose a socialist President Salvador Allende. He appeared as president of the Republic in 1974 - 1990 (from 1981 until the formation of a Constitution of 1980) which baru.Sekitar Chile 3,000 people killed during his reign. Pinochet introduced many neoliberal free market policies.
Through Operation Jakarta, the U.S. president, Richard Nixon used the CIA to assist the military junta of Chile in the coup of President Salvador Allende and raised the Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces of Chile, Augusto Pinochet Agurte. From 1974-1990, no fewer than 2025 cases of human rights violations carried out by the Pinochet regime through the secret service DINA (its kind KOPKAMTIB Chile) has occurred. 1068 of murder and 957 cases of people who do hilang.Kudeta Pinochet against Allende, when examined very similar to those allegedly committed against Sukarno Suharto is at least in part on:
Disturbing the circulation of documents about planning the murder of several generals and military commanders. This is in addition to occur in Chile (the plan document 'Z') is also Indonesia (circulation list of Army officials who would be killed among labor leaders, politicians and military elite Chile).
Disebarnya issues that cause unrest and instability in the country poltitik. In Chile the public, especially trade union militant and conservative generals received shipments of small cards on which are printed the words "Jakarta Se Acerca" (Jakarta It closes the distance).
Suspected coup is very strong both are equally supported the CIA.
In 1990 he lost power, but he made himself senator for life, to prevent that he was not arrested. He was forced to leave the position of senator in 2002, but again he was arrested, when it is said he suffered from dementia. In May 2004 the judge said was not true. On December 13 he was placed in custody rumah.Ia died on December 10, 2006 a week after a heart attack.
Jend. Large retired Army. Moehammad Haji Suharto, (ER, EYD: Suharto) (born in Kemusuk, Argomulyo, Yogyakarta, June 8, 1921 - died in Jakarta, January 27, 2008 in the age of 86 years ) is Indonesia's second president, replacing Sukarno, from 1967 until 1998.Sebelum became president, Suharto was the military leader during the Japanese occupation and the Netherlands, with the rank of Major General. After the September 30 Movement, Suharto stated that the CPI is a responsible party and led the operation to put it down. This operation has killed more than 500,000 inhabitants.
Suharto then seized power from Sukarno, and officially became president in 1968. He was reelected by the Assembly in 1973, 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, and 1998. In 1998, his tenure ended after resigning on 21 May that year, following the May 1998 riots and the occupation of the parliament building by thousands of students. He was the longest in his post as Indonesian president. Suharto was replaced by B.J. Habibie.
Rise to power
On the morning of October 1, 1965, a presidential guard troops, under Lieutenant Colonel Tjakrabirawa Lucky Syamsuri with other forces abducted and killed six generals. In the event that General A.H. Nasution, who served as Coordinating Minister of Defense and Armed Forces Chief of Staff, managed to escape. One who survived, who did not become the target of the attempted coup was Major General Suharto, although to a question whether or not Suharto was involved in the incident known as the G-30-S's. Some sources said the troops involved Tjakrabirawa stated that they tried to stop a military coup backed by the CIA planned to remove President Sukarno from power on "Armed Forces Day", October 5, 1965 by a military agency known as the Council General.
This event is immediately addressed by Major General Soeharto to immediately secure Jakarta, according to the official version of history in the New Order era, especially after getting the news that Lt. Gen. Ahmad Yani, Minister / Commander of the Army is not known to exist. It is actually based on the prevailing custom in the Army that if the Army Commander was unable to attend, then Commander of the Army Strategic Reserve Command which carry out their duties. This action is reinforced by the decline letter of instruction, known as the Order March 11 (Supersemar) of President Sukarno, who gave the authority and mandate to the Suharto to take all measures to restore security and order. Steps to be taken is to immediately dismiss Suharto Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) even had opposed President Soekarno, the arrest of a number of ministers who allegedly involved in the G-30-S (30 September Movement). This action by the international observers said as a step to get rid of the Armed Forces of the pro-Indonesian and pro-Communist Sukarno that actually addressed to the Indonesian Air Force in which the ranks of its leaders, especially Air Force Commander Omar Dhani Admiral Air considered pro Sukarno and the Communists, and eventually forced Sukarno to hand over executive power. Cleaning action of the elements of the communist (PKI) to bring punitive action dead in Indonesian Communist Party member who led the systematic murder of about 500 thousand "suspected communist", mostly civilians, and violence against the Indonesian Chinese minority. Suharto is said to receive the support of the CIA in the communist crackdown. American diplomats 25 years later revealed that they had written a list of "operations communist" Indonesia and gave as many as 5,000 names to the Indonesian military. Been Huang, a former member of the U.S. political embassy in Jakarta said in 1990 that: "It was a big relief for the Armed Forces. They may kill many people, and I probably have a lot of blood on my hands, but not that bad. There comes a time in which you must strike hard at the right time. " Howard Fenderspiel, Indonesian experts at the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research in 1965: "No one cares, as long as they are communists, that they were slaughtered. Nothing works about him." 1 He ended confrontation with Malaysia in order to free up resources in military.
General Suharto ultimately served as President of the Republic of Indonesia after President Sukarno's accountability (NAWAKSARA) rejected the MPRS in 1967, then founded the so-called Order Baru.Beberapa political observers, both domestic and overseas said that the parliament of the communist Suharto clean, get rid of trade unions and improve the sensor. He also sever diplomatic relations with People's Republic of China and established relations with western countries and the United Nations. He is a determinant in all political decisions.
General Suharto is said to increase military funding and established two intelligence agencies - Commando Restoration of Security and Order (KOPKAMTIB) and National Intelligence Coordinating Agency (Bakin). About 2 million people were executed in mass cleaning and more than 200,000 were arrested only on suspicion of involvement in the coup. Many communists, suspected communists and the so-called "enemy country" was sentenced to death (although some penalty be postponed until 1990).
Suspected that the list of suspected communists are given into the hands of Suharto by the CIA. In addition, the CIA to track names on this list when the Suharto regime started looking for them. Support is not talked about this from the Government of the United States to the Suharto regime remained silent until the invasion of East Timor, and continued until the late 1990s. Because of its rich natural resources and a large consumer population, Indonesia is valued as a trading partner the United States and so was shipping weapons but defended the Suharto regime. When Suharto mengumjungi Washington in 1995, Clinton administration officials quoted in the New York Times said that Suharto was "people like us" or "our group".
On 12 March 1967 appointed Soeharto as Acting President of Indonesia by the Assembly while. A year later, on March 27, 1968 he was officially appointed as President for a term of five years of the first. He directly appoint 20% of members of the Assembly. Golkar Party become the party favorite and the only one received by government officials. Indonesia has also become one of the founding of ASEAN.
Indonesia's economy is really chaotic in the mid-1960s. Soeharto was then seek advice from a team of Western economists trained results are widely known as the "Berkeley mafia". Short-term goal of this new government is to control inflation, stabilize the rupiah, to obtain external debt, and encouraging foreign investment. And for this one thing, their success is undeniable. Sudjono role as an assistant financial Humardani great significance in achieving political and social fields ini.Di, Suharto handed it to Ali Murtopo as assistant for political affairs. Eliminate opposition to weaken the power of political parties made through fusion in the party system.
Top of the New Order
During his rule, President Suharto set economic growth as the principal tasks and objectives of the government. He raised many technocrats and economists who previously opposed by President Sukarno, who tend to be socialist. Technocrats, who are generally educated technocrats and liberal west (United States) be appointed is a graduate of Berkeley so that they are better known in economics as the Berkeley Mafia click on the Economy, Industry and Financial Indonesia. At the time, Indonesian economic and financial assistance from donor countries (developed countries) who are members Dalan IGGI diseponsori by the Dutch government. But in 1992, IGGI stopped by the Indonesian government because it is interfering in domestic affairs of Indonesia, particularly in the case of East Timor in Dili after the incident. IGGI role was replaced by donor-sponsored CGI France. In addition, Indonesia received assistance from other international agencies under the United Nations such as UNICEF, UNESCO and the WHO. But unfortunately, the failure of economic management that relies on trickle-down effect system (trickle down) that emphasizes growth and economic management in a few circles and poor economic management and financial industry trade (economic affairs) government, making Indonesia ultimately depend on international donors, especially post-crisis 1997. In the economic field as well, noted Indonesia experienced self-sufficiency in rice in 1984. But this achievement was not sustained in subsequent years. Then Indonesia's economic progress was considered very significant that Indonesia had entered the country near the New Industrial countries along with Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, besides Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea.
In the political sphere, President Suharto did the unification of political parties so that at that time known three political parties namely the United Development Party (PPP), Functional Group (Golkar) and the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) in its efforts to simplify the political life in Indonesia as a result of President Sukarno's political future that uses multi-party system that resulted in the rise and fall of the cabinet and is considered the cause of stagnant development. Then dikeluarkannnya Politics Law and a single principle of Pancasila that characterize political life at that time. But in the journey, there inequality in political life where comes the term "single majority" where GOLKAR become the main party and castrate two other political parties in each organization ELECTION. Various dissatisfaction emerged, but can be muted by the system at that time.
Along with the rising level of education during his reign because of economic growth, comes the various criticisms and dissatisfaction over the disparity gap in development. Economic disparities, social and political circles who did not bring up satisfied and demanded improvement. Later in his reign, there were incidents of violence in society emerged which is generally full of political interests, in addition to it because of dissatisfaction from the public.
Some of the notes to the repressive actions of the New Order
President Soeharto considered starting an emphasis on ethnic Chinese, prohibits the use of written Chinese writing on a variety of written material, and close the Chinese organizations because of their alleged communist sympathies. However, Suharto involved an intimate friendship with Lee Kuan Yew, who never even become Prime Minister of Singapore are ethnic Chinese.
In 1970 Suharto student protests ban after widespread demonstrations against corruption. A commission found that corruption is very common. Suharto agreed to only two cases and then shut down the commission. Corruption then becomes a endemik.Dia ruled through military control and censorship of media. He controls financial transactions by providing easy and monopolies to his brothers, including six children. He also continued to play the different factions in the military against one another, starting with supporting nationalist group and then supporting the Islamic elements.
In 1973 he won the next five-year term through the election of "electoral college". and also re-elected in 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, and 1998. Suharto changed the election law by allowing only three parties allowed to contest the elections, including his own party, Golkar. Therefore all existing Islamic parties are required to join the United Development Party, while the parties are non-Muslims (ka **** k and Protestant) and nationalist parties are incorporated into the Indonesian Democratic Party.
In 1975, with the approval of even a demand from the United States and Australia, he ordered Indonesian troops to enter the former Portuguese colony of East Timor after Portugal's retreat and the Fretilin movement holds the power of the people who cause chaos in East Timor Own, and fears the United States for an act which he said Fretilin invite intervention of the Soviet Union. Then the pro-integration government installed by Indonesia requested the area to integrate with Indonesia. On July 15, 1976 East Timor became the province of East Timor until the territory was transferred to the UN administration in 1999.Korupsi a heavy burden in the 1980s. On May 5, 1980 a group later known as the Petition of 50 demanding greater political freedom. This group consists of members of the military, politicians, academics, and students. Indonesia pressing the news media and government mecekal signatories. Once in 1984 the group alleged that Suharto created a one-party state, some human rights leaders dipenjarakan.Catatan Suharto also getting worse from year to year. In 1993 the UN Human Rights Commission made a resolution that expressed deep concern on the violation of human rights in Indonesia and East Timor. U.S. President Bill Clinton supports it.
In 1996, Suharto tried to get rid of Megawati Sukarnoputri from the leadership of the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), one of three official parties. In June, Megawati supporters occupied the headquarters of the party. After security forces arrested them, riots broke out in Jakarta on July 27, 1996 (Saturday event Gray), known as the "Events Kudatuli" (Riot Two Seven July).
In 1997, according to the World Bank, 20 to 30% of Indonesian development funds have been misused for years. The Asian financial crisis in the same year did not bring good things for the rule of President Suharto when he was forced to ask for loans, which also means a thorough and detailed examination of the IMF.
Mekipun had expressed to not be nominated again as President in the period 1998-2003, mainly on special Golkar, Suharto still make sure he was re-elected by parliament for the seventh time in March 1998. After several demonstrations, riots, political and military pressure, and culminating in the occupation of the parliament building of Indonesia, President Suharto resigned on May 21, 1998 to avoid the eruption of disunity and instability in Indonesia. Government followed by the Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia, BJ Habibie.Dalam reign that lasted 32 years, there has been abuse of power, including corruption and human rights violations. This is one of the end of the Suharto era.
Cases of alleged corruption
Suharto has chaired the seven fruit and foundations, namely Yayasan Dana Sejahtera Mandiri, Supersemar Foundation, Yayasan Dharma Bhakti Social (Dharmais), Yayasan Karya Bhakti Endowment (Dakab), Yayasan Amal Bhakti Muslim Pancasila Foundation Humanitarian Fund Mutual Cooperation, Trikora Foundation. In 1995, Suharto issued a Presidential Decree Number 90 of 1995. This decree called on the businessmen to donate 2 percent of its profits to the Foundation Fund Mandiri.
The result of the investigation case file seven foundations Soeharto produce 2,000 pages thick. This file contains the results of examination of 134 witnesses and 9 expert witnesses fact, following the seizure of hundreds of authentic documents of two teams that once formed the Attorney General, since 1999.Menurut Transparency International, Suharto embezzled money with the greatest number compared to other world leaders in history with an estimated 15 -35 billion U.S. dollars during the 32-year reign.
On May 12, 2006, to coincide with the commemoration Sewindu Trisakti Tragedy, Attorney General Abdul Rahman Saleh issued a statement that it had issued a decree Discontinuing Prosecutions (SKPP) the case of former President Suharto, whose contents to stop the prosecution of the alleged corruption of former President Suharto in seven foundations that led to the reasons of physical and mental condition unfit defendants brought to trial. SKPP the South Jakarta District Court issued on May 11, 2006, but this SKPP ago declared invalid by the South Jakarta District Court on June 12, 2006.
10. George Walker Bush
George Walker Bush (born in New Haven, Connecticut, July 6, 1946, age 62 years) is the President of the United States to-43 currently being served. He was inaugurated January 20, 2001 after being elected through the 2000 presidential election and was reelected in the 2004 presidential election. Presidency a second time will expire on January 20, 2009. Previously, he was governor of Texas the 46th (1995-2000). Position was abandoned shortly after he was elected president.
In its history, Bush Family is part of the Republican Party and American politics. Bush is the eldest son of former United States President George H. W. Bush. His mother is Barbara Bush. His grandfather, Prescott Bush was a former United States Senator from Connecticut. Medium, his brother, Jeb Bush is a former Governor of Florida. Following the September 11 attacks of 2001, Bush announced the war against terrorism as a whole. Throughout October 2001, he ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to stifle the power of the Taliban and al-Qaeda.Pada March 2003, Bush ordered penyeranganan to Iraq on the grounds that Iraq had violated UN Resolution no. 1441 regarding weapons of mass destruction and therefore must be stripped with kekerasan.Setelah overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime, Bush was determined to lead the U.S. to establish democracy in the Middle East, beginning with Afghanistan and Irak.Namun up to now the situation in Iraq increasingly unstable because of the prolonged dispute between Sunni groups, who at the time Saddam Hussein was practically ruled over the majority Shiites, who now replace the ruling.
Bush's first elected in 2000, and became the fourth president in U.S. history elected without winning the popular vote after 1824, 1876, and 1888. Bush, who described himself as a "war president", was re-elected in a bitter election campaign 2004setelah and heat. In this campaign, his decision to conduct the War against Terrorism and the Iraq War become a central issue. Bush became the first candidate winning a majority of the popular vote since his father won 16 years sebelumnya.Dalam three previous elections, the appearance of a great third-party candidates have prevented the winner of the popular vote, Gore and Clinton, to obtain a majority vote of the people.
Bush is the second person to be president who followed his father George H. W. Bush, President of the United States is the 41st, after John Adams, second president, and John Quincy Adams, the sixth, a father and son. There are also couples grandfather and grandson, William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison.
The first term in office
His term as president-dominated "war on terrorism", which sticks out after the events of 9 / 11 (attacks on the WTC). The attack maketh the reason for ordering the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 to liberate Afghanistan from the Taliban regime and Iraq in 2003 to topple Saddam Hussein's government. Bush declared the U.S. victory in the invasion of Iraq on May 1, 2003, but until now (August 2006) the conflict in Iraq still has not ended due to attacks from rebels
Although many parties who oppose both the event (especially from outside the U.S.), he won the U.S. Presidential Election 2004 with a difference of 3% with his main rival John Kerry. The term of office they still met the problem in Iraq, because the victims of U.S. forces continued to fall, reaching more than 2,500 people until August 3, 2006.
Another important event in this second term is the Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Bush is considered slow in dealing with this incident, which claimed thousands of lives. This incident also shows a clear economic gap between whites and blacks in America. In a signing ceremony bioetik regulatory alternatives attended by 18 families with 20-something toddler who was born from donated embryos remaining from IVF procedures, for the first time it uses its veto to block the bill for the development of stem cell research embrionik.Pada currently Chief of Staff position The White House held by Joshua B. Bolten, and deputy chief of staff is held by Karl Rove.